Often there is a different percentage of completion for materials than there is for labor. As described previously, process costing can have more than one work in process account. Determining the value of the work in process inventory accounts is challenging because each product is at varying stages of completion and the computation needs to be done for each department.

1. If the closing work-in-progress is 800 units, 70% complete in all respects, the equivalent units of production of closing work-in-progress is 560 units (i.e., 800 x 70%).
2. The concept of equivalent units is used solely in process costing because you are determining the equivalent unit calculation based on a mass quantity of an item.
3. A copy of 11 Financial’s current written disclosure statement discussing 11 Financial’s business operations, services, and fees is available at the SEC’s investment adviser public information website – or from 11 Financial upon written request.
4. Equivalent units of production is a term applied to the work-in-process inventory at the end of an accounting period.

Equivalent units of production is important because companies use it to calculate production costs. The limitation of equivalent units computation is that it does not take into account the number of units completed in any specific unit. For example, let’s assume that a company manufactured 2000 motorcycles for this year and 30% of motorcycles were lost due to defects. If these defects are non recurring then such units should be excluded from equivalent production. Finally, the equivalent units of production calculated via the previous three steps should be aggregated to ascertain the total output in terms of equivalent units or equivalent production. The formula for calculating equivalent units of production uses the weighted-average method formula because of its simplicity.

## What is an equivalent unit of production?

For example, the closing stock of 200 units in a process, with 60% complete in respect of materials, wages, and overheads, is equivalent to 120 units (i.e., 200 x 60%), which are 100% complete. Equivalent or effective units of production represent the production of a process expressed in terms of completed units. The concept of equivalent units is defined as the number of units that would have been produced given the total amount of manufacturing effort expended for a given period.

In continuous processes, there is work-in-progress at the beginning and end of a period, as well as a degree of completion of closing work-in-progress. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. A financial professional will offer guidance based on the information provided and offer a no-obligation call to better understand your situation.

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## What Is an Equivalent Unit?

Equivalent units of production are recorded separately for the three categories of manufacturing costs because direct materials are added to the beginning of the manufacturing process, while labor and manufacturing overhead are added throughout the process. As a result, the equivalent units of direct materials will always be higher than other manufacturing costs. When a company assigns costs to an net working capital definition, the simplest method is by using the weighted-average cost of beginning inventory and adding new cost in additional purchases of direct materials.

It allocates that cost at the beginning of the project to purchase the necessary production materials. Given the allotted time period to complete a production project, the company may have to make budget adjustments if the project is not going as scheduled (e.g., some type of unexpected problem occurs during production that incurs extra costs regarding labor or materials). In addition to the equivalent units, it is necessary to track the units completed as well as the units remaining in ending inventory. A similar process is used to account for the costs completed and transferred. Reconciling the number of units and the costs is part of the process costing system.

Companies determine the efficiency of their manufacturing processes in various ways. This allows managers to see how much of a product was completed during a specific time period and how much of a product is still in work in progress. It also allows managers to calculate per unit cost of production to help determine unit pricing for customers. A production cost report is a departmental report that illustrates all of the information for quick analysis by management.

## How Are Equivalent Units of Production Used?

The physical units can now be represented as equivalent units for each production factor. The next step is to convert the physical units in production shown above (10,000) into equivalent units. Mathematically, this is done by converting the partially completed units into fully completed units and then adjusting the output figure. The reason why is because the figure of completed units alone is https://www.kelleysbookkeeping.com/accounting-starting-salaries-for-2022/ not an accurate measure of a department’s output since some of the department’s efforts during a period are expended on units that are only partially complete. Equivalent units are calculated by multiply the number of physical units in work in process by the estimated percentage of completion of the units. The table below summarizes the movement of physical units during the accounting period.

During the accounting period a further 8,000 units are added to the production process and 6,000 units are completed and transferred out, leaving an ending balance of 4,000 units in work in process. Equivalent units of production are used by a manufacturer to express partially completed units of product in terms of finished units. At the end, he determines that his 100 units are only 70 percent the way through the production process.

## What is Equivalent Units of Production?

The equivalent units of production is a concept that is used to describe a company’s products that are currently in production. Specifically, it refers to the total amount of units that the company could have potentially produced when taking into account how much production materials, labor, and production costs that the company spent during the time that the products were being made. For example, a company that has only spent 75% of the costs in the process of making 1,000 units has only 750 equivalent units of production.